THE MAKASSARS IN AYUTTHAYA (Part 5)
The grounds of the conspiracy

King Narai was the son of the usurper King Prasat Thong, who made away with all the royals of the Sukhothai dynasty. King Narai on his turn
disposed of his younger half-brother King Chai and afterwards his uncle King Si Sutham Racha, to ascend the throne in 1656. Due to all these
purges for power, King Narai was at the mercy of the intrigues of many potential enemies.

There was growing discontent over the decline of the importance of the nobility, the concentration of wealth in Phra Klang (Office for foreign affairs
and trade) and the king’s relation towards foreigners, especially the French. The Buddhist clergy felt treated unfairly and feared losing their privileged
status, as the Brahmans gained more importance, while King Narai was not that pious in building temples and casting Buddha images, reducing his
number of appearances in 'Kathin' processions and starting to examine the monkhood as too many commoners were escaping 'corvée by taking the
robes. The Sangha feared also the plans of the French to convert King Narai to Christianity. [1] Also the Muslims believed that the Siamese king was
going to convert to Catholicism and that their situation in the kingdom was going to be compromised.

Valentyn highlighted that the Muslim clergy, being mortal enemies of the idolatry of the Siamese, laid at the root of the Makassar Prince's behaviour
as they had been strongly persecuted in the exercise of their religion by the Buddhist Sangha.

According to the contents of a letter of Ayutthaya published by the Mercure, the Makassar Prince, fearing King Narai's conversion would have "
also
given notice to the King of Persia, who sent an Ambassador to His Siamese Majesty, to exhort him to embrace the Koran.
" It was because
of the apparent failure of this mission that he decided to enter the new conspiracy which was being prepared in the first months of 1686. [2]

The growing role of Phaulkon and his overwhelming share of foreign commerce was a thorn in the eye of many, especially the Muslims. The latter lost
their formerly dominant commercial role and political influence under the Persian Phra Klang Aqa Muhammed Astarabadi, accused of corruption in
1677 and followed by the rise of Phaulkon, especially after the death of Kosa Lek in 1683. The lucrative commerce with Persia was by-passed by
Phaulkon and all the benefit accrued exclusively to the king.

Among the principal malcontents was Okpra Phetracha, brought up with King Narai as they had the same wet nurse, being the mother of Kosa Lek
and Khosa Pan. He was the Head of the Department of Elephants and hostile to the French. He had the intention to succeed King Narai after his
death and was determined to eliminate King Narai’s possible successors being Narai’s half-brothers Prince Noi and Prince Aphaithot and Narai’s
adapted son Mom Pi, as the king had no male heir.

In 1682 a Malay conspiracy against King Narai occurred in which the Prince of Makassar was involved. Following de Bèze the eldest half-brother,
being deformed, moreover very choleric and much given to wine, was accused of supporting the Malaysian conspiracy. King Narai forgave not only
his half-brother but also the Prince of Makassar. Prince Aphaithot was thereafter kept in strict confinement within the Palace. [3] Notwithstanding the
lack of proof, we cannot rule out Petracha's shadow over this plot.

In 1683 Prince Noi was the victim of a murky intrigue of which the strings were pulled by Okpra Phetracha. A sister of Okpra Phetracha, being a
royal consort of King Narai, seduced the prince and the affair was exposed. She was tortured and condemned to death, while he was beaten on
King Narai’s orders by Phetracha and the royal favourite Mom Pi. Prince Noi was handicapped as a result of the severe flogging, which was
tantamount to political assassination. He recovered partially, but his legs were very weak and his tongue paralyzed, though some said this mutism was
feigned [3].

"Between them they carried it out with such a ruthless rain of blows that the unfortunate prince was left for dead at the stake. He came to
however, but his whole body was strangely bloated, joined with great weakness in the legs and a form of paralysis in the tongue which
hindred him from speaking. Some however have maintained that his dumbness was a mask he wore lest the king’s suspicion he aroused."

[3]

The identity of those who wished to use the Muslims to overthrow King Narai and Phaulkon remained concealed. King Narai presumed that the
instigators came from his own court, but could not – even with trying to get the Makassar Prince back on his hand – find out who was involved. De
Bèze, saw the Makassar revolt as part of Phetracha’s strategy of turning the king against his two half-brothers. He mentioned also that Phetracha
"
caused the princes to be accused of having entered into this conspiracy, which was intended, as far as he said, only to get rid of his
majesty to raise in his place one of the princes and the princess
", and that the two princes were again condemned to lashes. Also, Le Blanc
mentions that both the half-brothers were implicated in the "
unfortunate plot of the Makassars."


Who was the Makassar prince?

De La Mare does not mention the name of the Makassar prince, and indicates only that he is 'one of the sons of' - by the Dutch between 1666 and
1669 - conquered King of Makassar, hence Sultan Hasanuddin (reign 1653-1669). Still today, the name could not be fully ascertained.

Nicolas Gervaise writes in his "
Description Historique du Royaume de Macassar" published in 1688, that 'Daén-Ma-allé' was the brother of Craén
Sombanco. Both were the sons of a prince, whose name Gervaise does not mention, but refers to a prince being stabbed to death due to a
promiscuous love affair. Following the Macassar history, this prince would be I Manggorai Daeng Mameta Karaeng Bontolangkasa Tunikallo (reign
1566-1590). As Gervaise stated that Craén Sombanco (1) came to power at the age of 22 (in 1653), they could not be the sons of Bontolangkasa,
but rather the sons of Sultan Malikussaid. Gervaise states that the sultan's brother, Daén-Ma-allé, was feared by the Dutch for his political stance,
made suspect at the Court and was removed.

Francois Valentyn, a clergyman having worked periodically for the VOC, seems to have taken Gervaise's work partly as source and writes in his
chapter on Siam that "
The King of Macassar, Crain Sombanko, who about A°. 1650 lived, had a brother named Dain Mangali"; on the other
hand, he writes in his chapter on Makassar that Sultan Ala'uddin left two sons being Crain Sombangko and Crain Mabella. The first succeeded his
father's throne at the age of 22 as Sultan Malikussaid. Valentyn gives as thus two possible names for the brother of Sultan Malikussaid being Dain
Mangali (Daeng Mangalle) and Crain Mabella (Karaeng Mabella). Valentyn seems to mix up two different persons. Daeng Mangalle was the brother
of Sultan Abdul Jalil and an informer of the Dutch, as he was displeased that his brother bypassed him as his successor and had designated his son
Sampuwali instead. This Daeng Mangalle could not be the Makassar prince of Siam due to a conflicting time period. We can read in the
"Macassaarsche Zaaken" (Valentyn III p147 & 202-3) that Crain Mabella was the younger brother of Sultan Malikussaid. The latter designated his
son Hasanuddin as his successor instead of his younger brother Mabella. Based on Valentyn's texts, the Makassar prince who resided in Ayutthaya
in the second half of the 17th century should as thus have been Daeng Mabella.

A Chief Merchant of the VOC, Johannes Keijts, writes in one of his missives that the Makassar prince in Siam was the son of the brother (or sister)
of Prince Con or Cronron, the latter being Prince Tumamenang ri Ujung Tana (1631-1685) also known as Karaeng Karunrung. Karunrung was a
son of the ruler of Tallo, Karaeng Pattingalloang (1641-1654); and was the prime minister of Gowa, tumabicarabutta or 'the speaker of the land'
from 1654 until 1661, a person second only in power to the ruler. Karunrung was born in 1631. Following the annals, he had a son by Karaenta ri
Tamasongoq in 1648, named I Manginara Majduddin, known as Daengta Daeng Mattiro. This was - in view of Karunrung's age - likely his firstborn.
This son could not be the Makassar prince in Siam due to his young age. A possible contender could be the younger brother of Karunrung, born in
1641 as I Manuruki Muhammad. The year of the Makassar Prince's escape to Java in 1661 corresponds with the dismissal of his father Karaeng
Karunrung as prime minister.

The French gazette Mercure Galant (2) writes on the Makassar prince in its October 1687 edition: "
ce Prince estoit Frere, ou proche Parent du
Roy qui gouvernoit l' Isle de Macassar lors qui les Hollandois s'en rendirent les Maistres,..
" indicating that he was the brother of Sultan
Hasanuddin or at least a close relative.

In conclusion, Gervaise wrote that the Makassar prince in Siam was a son of Sultan Malikussaid and the younger brother of Sultan Hasanuddin.
Valentyn differs and writes that the Makassar prince was a brother of Sultan Malikussaid and as thus the uncle of Sultan Hasanuddin. The name of
the prince was likely Karaeng Mabella. Keijts writes in one of his missives, that the Makassar prince in Siam was the son of the brother (or sister) of
Prince Karaeng Karunrung (1631-1685). The 'Mercure Galant' publishes a letter wherein is written that the Makassar prince was a brother or close
relative of the Makassar king. In case he was a brother, he should have been a son of Sultan Hasanuddin. Following Gervaise, the Makassar Prince
in Siam would have been an uncle of Sultan Abdul Jalil, while following Valentyn, he would have been a great-uncle. In fact, we can only conclude
that the Makassar Prince was a relative of Sultan Abdul Jalil, who was one of the sons of Sultan Hasanuddin.


Footnotes:

(1) "Sombangku" was the term of address reserved for all the sovereigns of Makassar. When the Europeans spoke of Sombanco at that time, it was
generally to specifically designate Hasanuddin. [Pelras]
(2) The gazette 'Mercure Galant' was published from 1672 to 1724 (with an interruption in 1674–77) and after as the 'Nouveau Mercure Galant'
from 1677 to 1724 in France. The title was changed to Mercure de France in 1724. The gazette was briefly suppressed (under Napoleon) from
1811 to 1815 and ceased publication in 1825.

References:

[1] Baker, Chris & Phongpaichit, Pasuk (2017) - A History of Ayutthaya: Siam in the Early Modern World - Cambridge University Press.
[2] Mercure Galant, Paris, October 1687 and Mars 1688.
[3] de Bèze, Claude - Mémoire du Père de Bèze sur la vie de Constance Phaulkon, premier ministre du roi de Siam, Phra Narai, et sa triste fin: Suivi
de lettres et de documents d'archives de Constance Phaulkon. Publ. avec des notes par Jean Drans [et] Henri Bernard. - Presses salesiennes, 1947.