Year
Event
1403
10 Oct 1403 – Ming envoy, eunuch Li Xing, leads a maritime voyage to Ayutthaya (with the aim to control trade and execute political and economic
control).

[Reference: The Zheng He Voyages: A Reassessment - Geoff Wade (2004) - Asia Research Institute Working Paper Series No. 31.]
1408
6 Sep 1408 - Ming envoy, eunuch Zhang Yuan, leads a maritime voyage to Ayutthaya (with the aim to control trade and execute political and economic
control).

[Reference: The Zheng He Voyages: A Reassessment - Geoff Wade (2004) - Asia Research Institute Working Paper Series No. 31.]
1409
King Ramaracha quarrelled and ordered the arrest of one of his principal ministers, a certain Chao Senabodi, probably the commander of the Ayutthayan
army. The minister fled to Suphanburi, and appealed for the assistance of Prince Nakhon In, the Governor of Suphan and a nephew of King
Borommaracha I. The Prince proceeded to Ayutthaya, seized King Ramaracha, and forced him to abdicate. He then proclaimed himself King, with the
title of King Intharacha I - 6th King of Ayutthaya. It is at this moment in history that the U-Thong dynasty disappeared from the political scene to be
replaced by the House of Suphan. In the Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya we read that Chao Senabodi had brought Prince Nakhon In into Ayutthaya from
Suphanburi and had succeeded him in entering the Royal Palace. Once crowned Intharacha bestowed rewards on Chao Phraya Maha Senabodi being a
daughter of a royal concubine, a pair of gold trays of rank, a pair of pedestalled gold salvers, a gold lotus water-goblet, a two-edged sword, an ivory
palanquin and a lotus-penal palanquin.

[Reference: A History of Siam - W.A.R. Wood (1924) - page 77 / The Rise of Ayudhya - Charnvit Kasetsiri (1976) - page 104/ The Royal Chronicles of
Ayutthaya - Richard D. Cushman (2006) - page 26 / Source: Phan Canthanumat, British Museum, Reverend Phonnarat, Phra Cakkraphatdiphong &
Royal Autograph]
1410
31 Dec 1410 - Ming envoy, eunuch Zhang Yuan, leads a maritime voyage to Ayutthaya (with the aim to control trade and execute political and economic
control).

[Reference: The Zheng He Voyages: A Reassessment - Geoff Wade (2004) - Asia Research Institute Working Paper Series No. 31.]
1411
Following the death of King Saen Müang Ma of Chieng Mai a succession dispute arose between his sons, Prince Sam Fang Kaen and his older brother
Prince Yi Kumkam, Governor of Chieng Saen. Prince Yi Kumkam raised an army and marched on Chiang Mai. Chiang Mai sent its army out and Prince
Yi Kumkam's army was routed. He retreated to Sukhothai and appealed Siam for aid. An army, commanded by the vassal King Mahathammaracha III of
Sukhothai, was dispatched to Chieng Mai to place Prince Yi Kumkam on the throne. The Siamese first invested Phayao, but failed to take it. The Siamese
erected a mound twenty-four yards high and a stockade in order to shoot into the city with guns. The Phayao defenders melted down the brass tiles on
one of their temples and made a five-inch cannon, with which they destroyed the Siamese fort. The Siamese abandoned the siege of Phayao, went on to
Chiang Rai, came down to Fang in order to take Chiang Mai. The Ayutthayans laid siege to the City of Chiang Mai, which fiercely resisted all attempts to
take it. Finally Sam Fang Kaen, the young King of Chiengmai, suggested that the succession dispute should be settled by trial in a single combat under
the rule of “first blood”. Each side had to appoint a champion. If the Siamese champion won, King Fang Kaen would abdicate in favour of his brother; if
not Prince Yi Kumkam would abandon his claim. Terms were accepted and the two champions fought for several hours without result, but at last the
Siamese champion received a scratch on his big toe, and was adjudged the loser. Consequently, the Sukhothai army withdrew from Chiang Mai although
northwards, and attacked the town of Chieng Rai. Chieng Rai was captured and a large number of prisoners were taken back to Ayutthaya. Prince Yi
Kumkam became Governor of Muang Sarng.

[Reference: A History of Siam - W.A.R. Wood (1924) - page 78 / History of Laos - M.L. Mannich Jumsai (2000) - Page 56-57]]

Remark: This incident is not mentioned in the Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya.
1413
15 Jan 1413 - Ming envoy, eunuch Hong Bao, leads a maritime voyage to Ayutthaya (with the aim to control trade and execute political and economic
control).

[Reference: The Zheng He Voyages: A Reassessment - Geoff Wade (2004) - Asia Research Institute Working Paper Series No. 31.]
1416
27 May 1416 - Ming envoy, eunuch Guo Wen, leads a maritime voyage to Ayutthaya (with the aim to control trade and execute political and economic
control).

[Ref: The Zheng He Voyages: A Reassessment - Geoff Wade (2004) - Asia Research Institute Working Paper Series No. 31.]
1419
In 1419 King Mahathammaracha III of Sukhothai died. Two brothers claimed the throne and serious disturbances occurred. King Intharacha of
Ayutthaya advanced to Nakhon Sawan with his army to restore the order in his vassal state. The show of force was sufficient and the two parties,
Phraya Ban Muang and Phraya Ram, arranged their differences. The brother of King Mahathammaracha III ascended the throne as Mahathammaracha
IV of Sukhothai.

[Reference: A History of Siam - W.A.R. Wood (1924) - page 79 / The Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya - Richard D. Cushman (2006) - page 14 & 15 /
Source: Luang Prasoet, Phan Canthanumat, British Museum, Reverend Phonnarat, Phra Cakkraphatdiphong & Royal Autograph.]
1420
3 Jun 1420 - Ming envoy, eunuch Yang Min, leads a maritime voyage to Ayutthaya (with the aim to control trade and execute political and economic
control).

[Reference: The Zheng He Voyages: A Reassessment - Geoff Wade (2004) - Asia Research Institute Working Paper Series No. 31.]
1424
Death of King Intharacha and throne ascendancy of King Borommaracha II - 7th King of Ayutthaya. King Intharacha had three sons. Prince Ai Phraya
was ruler of Suphanburi, Prince Yi Phraya was ruler in Sanburi, while Prince Sam Phraya lived in Chainat. On their father's death, the two elder sons
fought for the throne. Both princes engaged each other in personal combat, mounted on elephant, at the foot of the “charcoal forest” bridge (Saphan Pa
Than) near the city gates of Ayutthaya. Both were badly wounded and died from the combat. The youngest brother, Chao Sam Phraya was then
proclaimed King under the title of Borommaracha II. Borommaracha II commanded two chedis built on the site where his brothers engaged in combat.
These chedis are still visible today in central Ayutthaya on the crossing of Naresuan Rd (former Pa Than Rd) and the Chikun Rd, opposite
Wat
Rachaburana. The latter was built by Borommaracha II on the cremation site of his brothers.

[Reference: A History of Siam - W.A.R. Wood (1924) - page 80 / The Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya - Richard D. Cushman (2006) - page 15 / Source:
Luang Prasoet, Phan Canthanumat, British Museum, Reverend Phonnarat, Phra Cakkraphatdiphong & Royal Autograph.]
1429
Throne ascendancy of King Thammasok (Dharmasoka) of Cambodia (r. 1429 - 1431).

[Reference: www.geocities.com/khmerchronology - data retrieved on 24 April 2009]
1431
War broke out with the Khmer. King Borommaracha II invaded the Khmer Kingdom and invested the capital of Angkor, which was taken after a siege of
seven months. The King of Cambodia, Dharmasoka, died during the siege. King Borommaracha II set up his own son, the Prince of Nakhon In'
(Inthaburi) as ruler of Cambodia. The Siamese King removed two Khmer princes, Phraya Kaeo and Phraya Thai, and their families to Ayutthaya, next to
a large number of sacred images of lions and oxen.

[Reference: A History of Siam - W.A.R. Wood (1924) - page 81 / The Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya - Richard D. Cushman (2006) - page 15 / Source:
Luang Prasoet, Phan Canthanumat, British Museum, Reverend Phonnarat & Royal Autograph / www.geocities.com/khmerchronology - data retrieved on
24 April 2009]
1432
The Prince of Inthaburi, died shortly after the retreat of the Siamese army (according to Cambodian history he was murdered). A Cambodian Prince,
Ponhea Yat or Gam Yat, was appointed King, with the title of Borommarachathirat Ramathibodi apparently without opposition on the part of the Siamese.
The new King begins his reign at Angkor, but in 1433 moves his court to Basan and one year later to Phnom Penh.

[Reference: A History of Siam - W.A.R. Wood (1924) - page 81 / www.geocities.com/khmerchronology - data retrieved on 24 April 2009]
1438
King Borommaracha II had the Maheyong Monastery built in 1438.  

[Reference: The Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya - Richard D. Cushman (2006) - page 15 / Source: Luang Prasoet, Phan Canthanumat, British Museum,
Reverend Phonnarat & Royal Autograph.]
1442
King Borommaracha II attacked Chiang Mai. The war was unsuccessful, he became ill and returned to Ayutthaya.

[Reference: The Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya - Richard D. Cushman (2006) - page 16 / Source: Luang Prasoet, Phan Canthanumat, British Museum,
Reverend Phonnarat, Phra Cakkraphatdiphong & Royal Autograph]
1444
King Borommaracha II attacked again the North. He invests Pathai Kasem and returned with 120.000 prisoners.

[Reference: The Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya - Richard D. Cushman (2006) - page 16 / Source: Luang Prasoet, Phan Canthanumat, British Museum,
Reverend Phonnarat, Phra Cakkraphatdiphong & Royal Autograph]
1445
Siamese history recalls Malacca was "subjected" to Sukhothai since the time of King Ramkhamhaeng and subsequently, after Sukhothai was subjugated,
to Ayutthaya. Ayutthaya's control was although more or less of a shadowy nature and by far not very effective. It does not appear in history that
Singapura, Malacca, Perak, Johor, Pahang or Rhio or any Malay States founded by emigrants from Sumatra, ever were really subject to Siam during the
long interval from 1160, when Singapura was first settled, up to the period of the conquest of Malacca by the Portuguese in 1511. On the contrary there
is proof, that the Malays successfully maintained their position and frequently repelled the attempts of the Siamese.

In 1445 news reached Ayutthaya that Malacca was a prosperous city, not subjected to Siam. The King of Siam sent an envoy to Malacca to demand a
letter of submission. Sultan Muzaffar Shah (r. 1445 - 1459) refused to own his allegiance to Siam and the King of Siam ordered an expedition for the
invasion of Malacca over land via Pahang. The Sultan gave orders that all men of the outlying districts be assembled and come up river to Malacca. Both
parties engaged in a battle for a long time, but Malacca was not subdued.

[Reference: Political and commercial considerations relative to the Malayan Peninsula - John Anderson (1824) - Page 25 & 34 / A History of Siam -
W.A.R. Wood (1924) - page 88]
1448
King Borommaracha II died in 1448. According to the "Yum Phai", an ancient poem, he died during a campaign. King Tilokaracha of Lan Na Thai,
around that time, undertook two expeditions to take Prae and Nan. The governor of Nan, Phraya Kenyhao fled to Ayutthaya to seek for aid. King
Borommaracha II presumably responded to this appeal, but died before he and his army had time to proceed very far. Prince Ramesuen, the Governor of
Phitsanulok, became King and assumed the title of Borommatrailokanat, the 8th King of Ayutthaya.

[Reference: The Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya - Richard D. Cushman (2006) - page 16 / Source: Luang Prasoet, Phan Canthanumat, British Museum,
Reverend Phonnarat, Phra Cakkraphatdiphong & Royal Autograph / A History of Siam - W.A.R. Wood (1924) - page 83 / History of Laos - M.L.
Manich Jumsai (1967) - page 66]
1448
King Borommatrailokanat handed over the Royal palace of his predecessors to be converted into the Phra Sri Sanphet Monastery. He established a new
royal residence, the Bencarat Palace, on the banks of the Lopburi river, just north of the former palace. He cremated the remains of King Ramathibodi I,
which had been kept embalmed and constructed the
Phra Ram Monastery On the cremation site and a pagoda to enshrine the ashes of the monarch.

[Reference: The Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya - Richard D. Cushman (2006) - page 16 / Source: Phan Canthanumat, British Museum, Reverend
Phonnarat, Phra Cakkraphatdiphong & Royal Autograph. / A History of Siam - W.A.R. Wood (1924) - page 83-84]
1451
In 1451 Phraya Yuthit Thira, the Governor of Sawankhalok, Ayutthaya's northern outpost, broke away from Ayutthaya and joined Lan Na Thai. He
requested King Tilokaracha of Chiang Mai for assistance, offering to become tributary to him. Lan Na Thai dispatched immediately an army to the south.
The Lao advanced party under Mun Harn Nakorn was repulsed by surprise at Chalieng, north of Sukhothai. King Tilokaracha was about to attack the
advancing Ayutthayan army, when he received news of Luang Prabang's incursion at Chieng Saen, his northern capital. The news of the incursion
caused the Lao army to return. A second Chiang Mai army was sent to Chakangrao (Kamphaengphet). The city was captured and annexed for a time to
the Chieng Mai dominions.

[References: The Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya - Richard D. Cushman (2006) - page 16 / Source: Luang Prasoet / A History of Siam - W.A.R. Wood
(1924) - page 87 / History of Laos - M.L. Manich Jumsai (1967) - page 67]
1454
In 1454 the Kingdom of Ayutthaya was ravaged by a terrible outbreak of smallpox in which many people died.

[References: The Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya – Richard D. Cushman (2006) - page 16 / Source: Luang Prasoet, Phan Canthanumat, British Museum,
Reverend Phonnarat, Phra Cakkraphatdiphong & Royal Autograph. / A History of Siam - W.A.R. Wood (1924) - page 88]
1455
In 1455, during the reign of King Borommatrailokanat, a naval military expedition was sent to Malacca. Sultan Muzaffar Shah (r. 1445 - 1459) readied
his naval forces and repelled the attack near Batu Pahat (Hewn Stone), a few miles south of Malacca. The Siamese were vigorously opposed by the
Malays and finally retreated in 1456.

[Reference: The Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya - Richard D. Cushman (2006) - page 16 / Source: Luang Prasoet, Phan Canthanumat, British Museum,
Reverend Phonnarat, Phra Cakkraphatdiphong, Royal Autograph / A History of Siam - W.A.R. Wood (1924) - page 88 / Political and commercial
considerations relative to the Malayan Peninsula - John Anderson (1824)]
1458
Construction of the Chula Mani Monastery in Phitsanulok in 1458 during the reign of King Borommatrailokanat.

[Reference: The Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya - Richard D. Cushman (2006) - page 16 / Source: Luang Prasoet, Phan Canthanumat, British Museum,
Reverend Phonnarat, Phra Cakkraphatdiphong, Royal Autograph.]
1462
In 1462, the ruler of Nakhon Thai with its inhabitants fled to Nan. A Siamese army was sent after them and got them back. The army marched
thereafter on Sukhothai and brought the city to submission.

[Reference: The Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya - Richard D. Cushman (2006) - page 17 / Source: Luang Prasoet.]
1463
In 1463, King Borommatrailokanat moved the royal throne to Phitsanulok in order to cope with the incursions from Chiangmai and put his elder son as
Regent of Ayutthaya with the title Borommaracha III. Prince Intharacha, his younger son, accompanied him to Phitsanulok. The latter remained the
capital of Siam for about twenty-five years.

[Reference: The Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya - Richard D. Cushman (2006) - page 17 / Source: Luang Prasoet / A History of Siam - W.A.R. Wood
(1924) - page 88]
1463
In 1463 King Tilokaracha invaded Siam again and sent an army to take Sukhothai. King Borommatrailokanat and Prince Intharacha reacted from
Phitsanulok. The eldest son of the King, the regent Borommaracha III attacked and routed the forces of Phraya Thian. He engaged Mun Nakhon's troops
and fought a duel on elephant with Mun Nakhon. The Chiang Mai army was repulsed and the Siamese advance guard caught up the Chieng Mai army
near Doi Ba. The young Prince Intharacha, accompanied by the Governors of Kamphaeng Phet and Sukhothai, attacked four elephants ridden by the
ex-Governor of Sawankhalok and three noted Chiengmai warriors. Prince Intharacha and his companions were driven down, on their elephants, into a
swamp, and the prince received an arrow wound in the face. They were finally forced to retreat and rejoined the main army of King
Borommatrailokanat. Both parties ended their campaign and returned.

[Reference: The Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya - Richard D. Cushman (2006) - page 17 / Source: Luang Prasoet. / A History of Siam - W.A.R. Wood
(1924) - page 88 & 89]
1465
King Borommatrailokokanat entered the monk hood at Chula Mani Monastery for an 8-month period in 1465. He was accompanied by more than 2,000
followers. Neighbouring potentates sent envoys to attend the ordination ceremony. The King of Chiang Mai dispatched an ambassador to Phitsanulok,
accompanied by twelve priests of great sanctity to assist at his ordination.


[Reference: The Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya - Richard D. Cushman (2006) - page 17 / Source: Luang Prasoet, Phan Canthanumat, British Museum,
Reverend Phonnarat, Phra Cakkraphatdiphong, Royal Autograph./ A History of Siam - W.A.R. Wood (1924) - page 89 & 90]
1471
A female white elephant was captured in Siam in 1471. It was seemingly the first one captured since the foundation of Ayuttaya (at least the first one to
be recorded in the chronicles).

[The Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya - Richard D. Cushman (2006) - page 17 / Source: Luang Prasoet, Phan Canthanumat, British Museum, Reverend
Phonnarat, Phra Cakkraphatdiphong, Royal Autograph./ A History of Siam - W.A.R. Wood (1924) - page 91]
1472
A third son was born to King Borommatrailokanat in 1472 and named Prince Jettha. He will become King in 1491 with the title of Ramathibodi II. He
descended through his mother from the Royal Family of Sukhothai.

[The Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya - Richard D. Cushman (2006) - page 17 / Source: Luang Prasoet, Phan Canthanumat, British Museum, Reverend
Phonnarat, Phra Cakkraphatdiphong, Royal Autograph. / A History of Siam - W.A.R. Wood (1924) - page 91 & 95]
1474
In 1474 the Siamese King invaded the Chiang Mai territories, attacked Chiengjuen and killed the governor Mun Kwaen. The Siamese army seized also
Chalieng (Sawankhalok). King Tilokaracha succeeded in recapturing Chiengjuen, but Sawankhalok remained in the hands of the Siamese. In 1475 the
King of Chiang Mai Tilokaracha asked to establish friendly relations. Although nothing appears to have been settled, open hostilities ceased for several
years.

[The Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya - Richard D. Cushman (2006) - page 17 / Source: Luang Prasoet, Phan Canthanumat, British Museum, Reverend
Phonnarat, Phra Cakkraphatdiphong, Royal Autograph. / A History of Siam - W.A.R. Wood (1924) - page 91 & 92 / History of Laos - M.L. Manich
Jumsai (1967) - page 69]
1477
In 1477 the name of Nakhon Thai - which was the old name for Sukhothai - was given to Muang Bangyang, an ancient city under Phitsanulok.

[The Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya - Richard D. Cushman (2006) - page 17 / Source: Luang Prasoet, Phan Canthanumat, British Museum, Reverend
Phonnarat, Phra Cakkraphatdiphong, Royal Autograph./ Ancient Cities in Thailand - Abha Bhamorabutr (1981) - page 4]
1484
In 1484 King Borommatrailokanat's youngest son, Prince Jettha, together with the eldest son of King Borommaracha III, were ordained as monks. They
left the priesthood the following year and Prince Jettha was appointed Maha Uparat.

[Reference: The Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya - Richard D. Cushman (2006) - page 18 / Source: Luang Prasoet, Phan Canthanumat, British Museum,
Reverend Phonnarat, Phra Cakkraphatdiphong, Royal Autograph. / A History of Siam - W.A.R. Wood (1924) - page 92]
1486
In 1486 King Tilokaracha of Chiang Mai had all the members of a Siamese embassy massacred. The Siamese invaded Chieng Mai territory at once, but
no important engagements took place.

[Reference: A History of Siam - W.A.R. Wood (1924) - page 93]
1487
In 1487 King Tilokaracha of Chiang Mai died at the age of seventy eight years. He reigned for forty four years.

[Reference: The Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya - Richard D. Cushman (2006) - page 18 / Source: Luang Prasoet, Phan Canthanumat, British Museum,
Reverend Phonnarat, Phra Cakkraphatdiphong, Royal Autograph.][A History of Siam - W.A.R. Wood (1924) - page 93]
1488
King Borommaracha III captured Tavoy in 1488. (Following the history writer William Wood, it was not certain whether Tavoy at that time was an
independent principality or was subjected to Siam and had rebelled.)

[Reference: The Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya - Richard D. Cushman (2006) - page 18 / Source: Luang Prasoet, Phan Canthanumat, British Museum,
Reverend Phonnarat, Phra Cakkraphatdiphong, Royal Autograph./ A History of Siam - W.A.R. Wood (1924) - page 94]
1488
In 1488 King Borommatrailokanat passed away at Phitsanulok at the age of fifty-seven. He was succeeded by his son known as King Borommaracha III,
regent of Ayutthaya and 9th King of Ayutthaya. Phitsanulok ceased to be the capital. (William Wood writes that according to some versions of Siamese
history, King Borommatrailokanat died in 1465 when he left the priesthood. He was succeeded by his son Intharacha, who reigned for 22 years. King
Intharacha was in turn succeeded by his son (not brother) Ramathibodi II.)

[Reference: The Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya - Richard D. Cushman (2006) - page 18 / Source: Luang Prasoet, Phan Canthanumat, British Museum,
Reverend Phonnarat & Phra Cakkraphatdiphong. / A History of Siam - W.A.R. Wood (1924) - page 94 & 95]
1491
King Borommaracha III died in 1491 at the age of around forty-five. Prince Jettha succeeded his brother King Borommaracha III and assumed the title
of King Ramathibodi II - 10th King of Ayutthaya. Born in 1472, he was nineteen years old when he ascended the throne.

[Reference: The Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya - Richard D. Cushman (2006) - page 18 / Source: Luang Prasoet, Phan Canthanumat, British Museum,
Reverend Phonnarat, Phra Cakkraphatdiphong, Royal Autograph. / A History of Siam - W.A.R. Wood (1924) - page 95]
1492
In 1492 King Ramathibodi II erect two pagodas at Wat Sri Sanphet to enshrine the ashes of his father, King Borommatrailokanat and his elder brother,
King Borommaracha III. These chedis still can be seen today.

[Reference: The Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya - Richard D. Cushman (2006) - page 18 / Source: Luang Prasoet. / A History of Siam - W.A.R. Wood
(1924) - page 95]
1498
Khlong Samrong was redug in 1498 during the reign of King Ramathibodi II. The canal connected the Bangpakong River with the Chao Phya River
below Khlong Toey, broadening an existing natural canal to allow the passage of ships,

[Reference: The Chao Phya, River in Transition - Steve Van Beeck (1995) - page 39-40.]
1499
In 1499 King Ramathibodi II gave order to build a preaching hall at Wat Sri Sanphet.

[Reference: The Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya - Richard D. Cushman (2006) - page 18 / Source: Luang Prasoet.]
1400 - 1499