Year
Event
1500
In 1500 King Ramathibodi II gave orders for the casting of a gigantic Buddha image to be erected in the new hall at Wat Sri Sanphet. It took more than
three years to complete. The Buddha image Phra Sri Sanphet was inaugurated in 1503.

[Reference: The Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya - Richard D. Cushman (2006) - page 18 / Source: Luang Prasoet. / A History of Siam - W.A.R. Wood
(1924) - page 96]
1507
In 1507 Maharaja Ratana (Muang Kaeo), the ruler of Chiang Mai, attacked Sukhothai. The Laotians were worsted in battle and driven back.

[Reference: A History of Siam - W.A.R. Wood (1924) - page 96]
1508
In 1508 the Siamese retaliated by invading Chiang Mai territory and captured Phrae. The Siamese although were forced to retreat.

[Reference: A History of Siam - W.A.R. Wood (1924) - page 96]
1509
In 1509 occurred the last engagement between Malayan and Siamese Forces. The Maharajah of Ligor (present Nakhon Sri Thammarat) , Dewa Susa,
was ordered by the King of Siam to attack Pahang. Sultan Mahumed of Malacca sent assistance to Pahang and in a few days his men finished a large
fort. The Rajah of Ligor attacked - apparently in a rather nonchalant way - and his army was decimated and completely dispersed. Dewa Susa fled to the
uplands of Pahang, and proceeded straight by land to Callantan, from where he returned to Ligor.

[Reference: Political and commercial considerations relative to the Malayan Peninsula - John Anderson (1824) - Page 24 - Conquest of Quedah and Perak]
1510
The Siamese invaded Chiang Mai territory again  in 1510, but were forced to retreat.

[Reference: A History of Siam - W.A.R. Wood (1924) - page 96]
1511
The Portuguese Vice-Roy, Alphonso de Albuquerque, attacked and captured Malacca in 1511. Having learnt that the Siamese claimed some rights over
Malacca, he sent an envoy to Ayutthaya with a letter addressed to the King of Siam. Duarte Fernandez, a tailor with knowledge of the Malay language,
was designated and took advantage of the presence of some Chinese junks heading for Ayutthaya. They passed through the Straits of Singapore, and
sailed northwards along the coast of Pattani to the City of Cuy, and then to Ayutthaya. He was received with great honor in Ayutthaya and returned
accompanied by a Siamese Ambassador. The return voyage went over land to Tenasserim, where they embarked in two ships and sailed to Malacca.

[Reference: A History of Siam - W.A.R. Wood (1924) - page 97 & 98 / General History and Collection of Voyages and Travels - Robert Kerr (1811) -
Page 57 & 58]
1512
In 1512, a second Portuguese envoy, Antonio de Miranda de Azevedo, arrived in the Siamese Kingdom, by the overland route.

[Reference: A History of Siam - W.A.R. Wood (1924) - page 98]
1513
In 1513 Chiang Mai attacked Sukhothai and Kamphaeng Phet. The Chiengmai General, Mün Phing Yi, captured prisoners, elephants and other booty.

[Reference: A History of Siam - W.A.R. Wood (1924) - page 99]
1515
The King of Siam, accompanied by his sons, Prince Ek and Prince Athitya, drove back the Laotians and followed them with his army as far as Nakhon
Lamphang. A battle was fought on the banks of the Mae Wang River. The Laotions were defeated and Nakhon Lamphang was captured by the Siamese.
A celebrated Buddha image, carved out of black stone, together with other booty, was taken to Ayutthaya.

[Reference: A History of Siam - W.A.R. Wood (1924) - page 99]
1516
The Portuguese in Malacca sent in 1516 a third envoy, named Duarte de Coelho, to Ayutthaya and concluded a fresh treaty with Siam. They promised to
supply the Thais with guns and ammunition. The Siamese agreed to guarantee religious freedom as well as to facilitate the efforts of the Portuguese in
establishing settlements and engaging in trade. The King permitted de Coelho to erect a wooden crucifix in a prominent place in Ayutthaya. The final
result of these treaties was that the Portuguese were permitted to reside and carry on trade at Ayutthaya, Tenasserim, Mergui, Pattani and Nakhon Sri
Thammarat. As many as
300 Portuguese nationals subsequently settled down in Ayutthaya: some traders and some military experts. The Portuguese
expressed their desire that Siamese be sent to settle down in Malacca in place of the Arab traders who had left the city following the Portuguese
conquest. Portugal appointed a trade representative in Nakhon Si Thammarat and Pattani to conduct trade in rice, tin, ivory, gum benjamin, indigo,
sticklac and sappan wood.

[Reference: A History of Siam - W.A.R. Wood (1924) - page 98]
1516
1516 - Birth of Tabin Shwe Thi on Wednesday the 1st of waning May 878 CS.

[Reference: Burmese Invasions of Siam, Translated from the Hmannan Yazawin Dawgyi - Nai Thien - Journal of the Siam Society - Vol. 5.1 (1908) -
page 3.]
1517
The Portuguese open up trade with Patani soon after Duarte Coelho's mission to the capital of Siam.

[Ref: English Intercourse with Siam in the 17th century - John Anderson (1890) - Page 44]
1518
In 1518 the King ordered the deepening of the Samrong and the Thap Nang canals, in order that large boats could better navigate them. A canal, navigable
for sea-going vessels, was dug, connecting the two canals and debouching near the present town of Paknam.

[Reference: The Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya - Richard D. Cushman (2006) - page 19 / Source: Phan Canthanumat, British Museum, Reverend
Phonnarat, Phra Cakkraphatdiphong, Royal Autograph. / Reference: A History of Siam - W.A.R. Wood (1924) - page 100]
1526
In 1526 the King's eldest son, Prince No Phutthangkun, was was appointed Maha Uparat and sent to Phitsanulok as Governor.

[Reference: The Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya - Richard D. Cushman (2006) - page 19 / Source: Luang Prasoet. / A History of Siam - W.A.R. Wood
(1924) - page 100]
1529
In July 1529 King Ramathibodi II died suddenly at the age of fifty-seven, after a reign of forty years. Prince No Phutthangkun ascended the throne and
took the royal title of King Borommaracha IV - 11th King of Ayutthaya.

[Reference: The Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya - Richard D. Cushman (2006) - page 19 & 20/ Source: Luang Prasoet. / A History of Siam - W.A.R.
Wood (1924) - page 100]
1530
Death of the King of Taungoo in 1530 and throne succession by his son Tabeng Shwe Thi.

[Reference: A History of Siam - W.A.R. Wood (1924) - page 102]

Tabin Shweti ascended the throne on the death of his father, the King of Taungoo, Maha Thirizeya Thura, on Thursday 5th of waxing December 892 CS
at the age of fifteen. He took the name of Mintara Shweti.

[Ref: Burmese Invasions of Siam, Translated from the Hmannan Yazawin Dawgyi - Nai Thien - Journal of the Siam Society - Vol. 5.1 (1908) - page 3.]
1533
Borommaracha IV died of smallpox in 1533, having been on the royal throne for less than five years. He was succeeded by his son, Prince Ratsada, a
child of five - 12th King of Ayutthaya.

[Reference: The Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya - Richard D. Cushman (2006) - page 19 & 20/ Source: Luang Prasoet. / A History of Siam - W.A.R.
Wood (1924) - page 100]
1534
King Ratsada remained not long on the throne. Following the Luang Prasoet Chronicle, the young King got an accident, but later chronicle writers speak
of an execution. As it goes through Siam's history, child kings did not remain long. Prince Chairacha, an half-brother of King Borommaracha IV and
supposedly the Governor of Phitsanulok, ascended the throne. King Chairacha - 13th King of Ayutthaya.

[Reference: The Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya - Richard D. Cushman (2006) - page 20 / Source: Luang Prasoet, Phan Canthanumat, British Museum,
Reverend Phonnarat, Phra Cakkraphatdiphong, Royal Autograph./ Reference: A History of Siam - W.A.R. Wood (1924) - page 100 & 101]
1537
Mintara Shweti (Tabin Shweti), King of Taungoo, subjugates Hanthawaddy (Pegu) after repeated attempts. The king of Hanthawaddy fled to his
brother-in-law the King of Prome. Mintara Shweti continued his offensive actions and captured Martaban, upon Moulmein submitted. He moves his royal
seat to Hanthawaddy as he conqured the whole of the Mon territory. He became known as the King of Hanthawaddy in Siamese History, but was not a
Mon by birth.

[Ref: Burmese Invasions of Siam, Translated from the Hmannan Yazawin Dawgyi - Nai Thien - Journal of the Siam Society - Vol. 5.1 (1908) - page 3.]
1538
The first Khlong Lat (short cut) on the Chao Phraya River was dug in 1538. It was a 3 Km shunt called Khlong Lat Bang Krua, that connected Wat
Chalom (on what would henceforth be called Maenam Om) with Wat Khee Lek (on what would become Khlong Bangkok Yai) on the present-day
Bangkok.

[Reference: The Chao Phya, River in Transition - Steve Van Beeck (1995) - page 39 ]
1538
In 1538 the King Chairacha engaged 120 Portuguese to form a bodyguard and to instruct the Siamese in musketry in order to coop with the aggressive
policy of the King of Taungu, who seized various towns on the Siamese frontier.

[Reference: A History of Siam - W.A.R. Wood (1924) - page 102]
1540
The King of Taungu, Tabeng Shwe Thi, came into conflict with the Siamese during his war against Pegu in 1540. Tabeng Shwe Thi occupied the town
of Chieng Kran (now called Gyaing in Moulmein district), which was subjected to Siam. King Chairacha attacked the Burmese and drove them out of his
dominions. In this military expedition he was assisted by his Portuguese mercenaries (Ref: The Travels, Voyages and Adventures of Ferdinand Menfez
Pinto), which did such a good service that they were rewarded with commercial and residential privileges.  

[Reference: A History of Siam - W.A.R. Wood (1924) - page 102 & 103 / Pinto - Bangkok Post - 05 April 2008]
1542
The second Khlong Lat (short cut) on the Chao Phraya River was dug in 1542 and was responsible for the creation of Bangkok and Thonburi. (There is
disagreement about the exact date of its construction, with Gerini stating it was dug in 1538 and Nid Hinshiranan, a modern city planner, contending that
it was dug in 1542). The 2 Km long Khlong Lat Bangkok was dug from the site of the present-day Bangkok Noi Railway Station to a point just south of
Wat Arun. River action widened it to become the main channel of the river, transforming the former loop into four canals - Bangkok Noi, Bang Ramat,
Taling Chan, and Bangkok Yai - and reducing a journey of 14 kilometers to 2.

[Reference: The Chao Phya, River in Transition - Steve Van Beeck (1995) - page 39 ]
1542
Mintara Shweti (Tabin Shweti), King of Hanthawaddy, takes Prome after a protracted siege in 904 CS.

[Ref: Burmese Invasions of Siam, Translated from the Hmannan Yazawin Dawgyi - Nai Thien - Journal of the Siam Society - Vol. 5.1 (1908) - page 3.]
1545
In 1545 King Chairacha was called upon by a Northern Shan Prince to intervene in the Chiang Mai affairs. King Müang Kesa (Ket Chettharat) of Chiang
Mai became insane and was murdered. The conspirator, one Saen Dao, offered the throne to the Prince of Kengtung, who refused and to Prince Mekuti
of Muang Nai. The Prince of Hsenwi sent an army to invade Chiengmai for the purpose of punishing Saen Dao for the murder of the King of Chiang Mai.
Failing to take the town Mün Hoa Khien, the Hsenwi General, established himself at Lamphun, and dispatched messengers to ask for the aid of King
Chairacha. King Chairacha at once set out for Chiang Mai. The Governor of Phitsanulok formed the vanguard. The army encamped at Kamphaeng Phet,
Chiang Thong, and finally moved to Chiang Mai. During that time, nobles opposed to Saen Dao, requested the aid of the King of Luang Prabang; came
down from Chieng Saen and succeeded in taking the city of Chieng Mai. They executed Saen Dao and his adherents and set up Princess Chiraprapha, as
Regent of Chiang Mai pending the arrival of Prince Settha from Luang Prabang. King Chairacha arrived at Chiengmai in June 1545, only to find his prime
objective, the removal of Saen Dao, already fulfilled. The Princess Regent of Chiang Mai received the Siamese King in a friendly manner and the latter
spent some time at Chiang Mai. He returned with his army to Ayutthaya in September.

[Reference: The Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya - Richard D. Cushman (2006) - page 20 / Source: Luang Prasoet, Phan Canthanumat, British Museum,
Reverend Phonnarat, Phra Cakkraphatdiphong, Royal Autograph. A History of Siam - W.A.R. Wood (1924) - page 100 & 101]Reference: A History of
Siam - W.A.R. Wood (1924) - page 103]
1545
A big fire broke out in Ayutthaya, continuing for three days, before it was under control. Ten thousand and fifty buildings became prey of the flames.
Many temples and public buildings were destroyed.

[Reference: The Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya - Richard D. Cushman (2006) - page 20 & 21/ Source: Luang Prasoet. / A History of Siam - W.A.R.
Wood (1924) - page 104]
1546
1546 - Mintara Shweti (Tabin Shweti), King of Hanthawaddy lie siege to Arakan upon a succession dispute after the king there died. Sandown and certain
other territories were split of Arakan and given to the deceased king’s brother. The deceased king’s son governed the remaining part of Arakan. Both
were subjected to Hanthawaddy. It was in this configuration Hanthawaddy engaged war with Siam.

[Ref: Burmese Invasions of Siam, Translated from the Hmannan Yazawin Dawgyi - Nai Thien - Journal of the Siam Society - Vol. 5.1 (1908) - page 4.]
1546
Prince Mekuti of Muang Nai with support of the Prince of Yawnghwe (Southern Shan State), invaded Chiang Mai territory, but their armies were driven
out by the Princess Regent Chiraprapha. A Luang Prabang force arrived in Chiang Mai to assist Prince Settha, the oldest son of the King of Luang
Prabang to be set on the throne of Lan Na Thai. King Chairacha set out with an army for Chiang Mai, likely being called in for assistance by the Chiang
Mai Regent against Prince Mekuti. The vanguard came again from Phitsanulok and the armies gathered at Kamphaeng Phet. From there they proceeded to
Chiang Mai via Lamphun. The Siamese vanguard attacked Lamphun and burnt down a great part of the city. King Chairacha arrived with his army, and
they advanced on Chieng Mai. The city was attacked during three days but could not be captured. King Chairacha decided, after destroying some temples
and a large number of houses near Chiang Mai, to retreat. The Laotians pursued the Siamese army and defeated it at Wat Chiengkrung (presently in
Saraphi district). The Siamese retreat continued through Müang Li. The Prince of Nan, Yi Mangkala, assisted by troops of Chiang Mai and Nakhon
Lamphang, attacked the retreating Siamese. The Governors of Kamphaeng Phet and Phichai were killed in this battle. The Siamese were again ambushed
farther south, near the Phun Sam Mün river and once more routed, this time with the loss of three Generals, 10,000 men, and 3,000 boats. After these
serious heavy losses, King Chairacha returned to Ayutthaya.

[Reference: The Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya - Richard D. Cushman (2006) - page 21 / Source: Luang Prasoet, Phan Canthanumat, British Museum,
Reverend Phonnarat, Phra Cakkraphatdiphong, Royal Autograph. / A History of Siam - W.A.R. Wood (1924) - page 105]
1547?
The King of Siam sent Thamein Kanburi (Phraya Kanchanaburi) and Thamein Dawtaka (Phraya Tak?) with 200 elephants, 1000 horses and 60,000 men
to capture Tavoy. On the arrival of the Siamese troops, the local governor showed little resistance and fled to Ye. Mintara Shweti (Tabin Shweti), King of
Hanthawaddy sent 40,000 men by water with a flotilla of 100 big and 300 small sailing vessels, and 200 elephants, 2,000 horse and 80,000 men by land
to expel the Siamese from Tavoy. The expedition was a success and the Burmese followed the Siamese forces well into Siamese territory. This Siamese
attack was one of the triggers of the first siege of Ayutthaya in 1548.

[Ref: Burmese Invasions of Siam, Translated from the Hmannan Yazawin Dawgyi - Nai Thien - Journal of the Siam Society - Vol. 5.1 (1908) - page 4.]
1547
King Chairacha died from a sudden illness in 1547, probably poisened by one of his four non-royal consorts, Thao Sri Suda Chan. Although not
customary, his son,
Prince Yot Fa, eleven years old, and also son of Thao Sri Suda Chan, ascended the throne of Ayutthaya; being the 14th King of
Ayutthaya. After the cremation of King Chairacha, Prince Thianracha, who was a younger half-brother and of the same royal lineage as King Chairacha,
sensing the danger of being made away as conduct of affairs was in the hands of the King's mother, ordained as a monk at
Rachapraditsathan Monastery.

[Reference: The Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya - Richard D. Cushman (2006) - page 21 / Source: Luang Prasoet, Phan Canthanumat, British Museum,
Reverend Phonnarat, Phra Cakkraphatdiphong, Royal Autograph.]   A History of Siam - W.A.R. Wood (1924) - 106 & 108]
1547
Prince Settha was crowned as King Setthathirat shortly after King Chairacha's second expedition and was the 19th King of Lan Na. He only remained in
Chiang Mai until 1550 and returned to Luang Prabang to claim the throne of Lan Chang (Lan Xiang), on the sudden death of his father, King Potisarat.
King Setthathirat removed from Chiang Mai the Emerald Buddha, the Crystal Buddha of Lamphun, the Phrasingh, and other particularly sacred images.
None of them were returned except the Phrasingh. King Setthathirat announced his intention of remaining at Luang Prabang. The Chieng Mai nobility
offered the throne to Prince Mekuti of Müang Nai, to become King of Lan Na Thai with the title of Phra Mekutawisutthiwong.
1548
The Princess Regent Thao Si Sudachan fell in love with the guard of the Phiman Rataya Hall named Phan But Sri Thep. She managed to appoint him first
as Khun Chinnarat and later as Khun Worawongsa, entrusting him with the duty of enlisting the troops as certain disturbances occurred in the northern
provinces of the Kingdom and enabling him to designate troops and officers favorable to him. Phraya Maha Sena (Minister of Defense) who sensed the
intrigue, was made away with, as many others who could oppose Worawongsa's rise. As a result of the intrigue, the Princess Regent was pregnant and
gave birth to a daughter. Having cleared her Council of all opponents, the Princess Regent obtained the consent to appoint Khun Worawongsa as Regent
so that he could administer the affairs of the kingdom during the minority of
King Yot Fa. All the governors of the seven northern provinces were recalled
and replaced by loyals to the new Regent. Early November 1548 King Yot Fa died at the age of thirteen year. The exact cause of his death is not known.
Following the Luang Prasoet Chronicle he got an accident. The later written Royal chronicles of Ayutthaya state that the was executed at the
Khok
Phraya Monastery. The contemporary Portuguese traveler Pinto although, wrote the young king was poisoned.

[Reference: The Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya – Richard D. Cushman (2006) - page 23 / Source: Luang Prasoet, Phan Canthanumat, British Museum,
Reverend Phonnarat, Phra Cakkraphatdiphong & Royal Autograph. / A History of Siam - W.A.R. Wood (1924) - page 109 & 110]
1548
The coronation of Khun Worawongsa as the 16th ruler of Ayutthaya took place on 11 November 1548. His brother, Nai Chan, who lived at Maha Lok,
was appointed Uparat. King Worawongsathiracha will rule for forty-two days.

[Reference: The Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya – Richard D. Cushman (2006) - page 23 / Source: Luang Prasoet, Phan Canthanumat, British Museum,
Reverend Phonnarat, Phra Cakkraphatdiphong & Royal Autograph. / A History of Siam - W.A.R. Wood (1924) - page 110]
1549
Khun Phirenthorathep, a descendant from the House of Sukhothai, did not agree with the usurpation of the throne by King Worawongsa. Phiren held a
secret meeting with some trustees being Khun Inthorathep, Mun Ratchasena, and Luang Si Yot and decided to put Prince Thianracha on the throne. They
consulted an oracle at the recitation hall of
Pa Kaeo Monastery (present Wat Yai Chai Mongkhon), which turned out in the favor of Thianracha, ordained
at the
Rachapraditdsathan Monastery. Early January, 1549, Worawongsa announced his intention of proceeding by boat to the Elephant Kraal on 13
January to see a very large elephant caught. Phiren initiated the Governors of Sawankhalok and Phijai into his plan. The Royal barge of Khun
Worawongsa and Queen Sri Sudachan was intercepted in a narrow creek of the Ban Pla Mo Canal, leading to the kraal. The usurper King and his Queen
were dragged ashore and beheaded, together with their infant daughter. Their bodies were impaled in the vicinity of the ambush, at
Wat Raeng. Mün
Rachasenha shot the pseudo-Uparat, Nai Chan, near the Sua Landing (Tha Sua) when he was riding to the kraal on an elephant. The little Prince Sri Sin,
son of King Chairacha, who had accompanied his mother, was given into the keeping of Prince Thianracha.

[Reference: The Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya - Richard D. Cushman (2006) - page 24 & 25 / Source: Phan Canthanumat, British Museum, Reverend
Phonnarat, Phra Cakkraphatdiphong & Royal Autograph. / A History of Siam - W.A.R. Wood (1924) - page 111 & 112]
1549
Phiren and his men, after killing the usurper King Worawongsa, re-entered the City of Ayutthaya in order to secure the Royal Palace. Prince Thienracha
was invited to leave the monk hood and was brought forth in procession from the Rachapraditsathan monastery towards the Royal Palace, by the Chai
Suphannahong Royal barge and a vast flotilla. He was crowned as King of Siam on 19 January 1549 (1) with the title of Maha Chakkraphat. King
Chakkraphat adopted the same day Prince Si Sin, son of Chairacha King (r. 1534-1547). The King's first act on attaining the throne was to shower
unprecedented honours and rewards on those who had brought him in position. Phiren was conferred the title of Somdet Maha Thammaracha, given the
right to issue royal commands and put in the position of Governor of Phitsanulok. King Chakkraphat bestowed the hand of his eldest daughter, Princess
Sawatdirat (2), in marriage to Phiren and gave her the royal title of Princess Wisut Kasattri (3). Inthorathep was made Chao Phraya Si Thammasokkarat
and put in the position of Governor of Nakhon Si Thammarat; Luang Si Yot was made Chao Phraya Maha Senabodi, while Mun Ratchasaneha was made
Chao Phraya Maha Thep.

(1) Date taken from Pinto (The Travels, Voyages, and Adventures of Ferdinand Mendez Pinto).
(2) Also daughter of Queen Suriyothai.
(3) The position formerly held by the Chief Queen of Phitsanulok.

[Reference: The Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya - Richard D. Cushman (2006) - page 25 / 27 Source: Phan Canthanumat, British Museum, Reverend
Phonnarat, Phra Cakkraphatdiphong & Royal Autograph./ A History of Siam - W.A.R. Wood (1924) - page 112]
1557
Building of Wicha Prasitwong Fortress at the entrance of Khlong Bangkok Yai at Thonburi's south-eastern corner.

[Reference: The Chao Phya, River in Transition - Steve Van Beeck (1995) - page 44.]
1563
Foundation of Thonburi, a key settlement by the seventeenth century. It was called Thonburi Si Maha Samut (Oceanic City of Great Wealth) by the
Siamese. Thonburi was a customs port but had also a strategic military importance.

[Reference: The Chao Phya, River in Transition - Steve Van Beeck (1995) - page 41.]
1595
Embassy sent by the Portuguese Captain of Malacca, D. Francisco de Silva de Menezes in order to request the King of Siam to release the Portuguese
and Christian captives taken during his war with Lovek (Cambodia) in 1594.  

[Ref: Embassies and Surrogates: case-study of a Malacca Embassy to Siam in 1595 - Teotonio R. De Souza (1989)]
   
1500 - 1599