A tael or thail is a unit of weight and a monetary unit used in China, Japan, Tonkin, Cambodia, Siam, Aceh, Makassar etc. As a unit of weight,
1 tael was about 37.5 gram, equal to 1/16 of a "catty". The worth of 1 tael in monetary unit varied from place to place. In Aceh, the tael was
usually measured in gold. 1 tael was worth 4 rijksdaalders, 16 golden mas. If in silver, worth about 60 stuivers or 8 silver mas. Also called
"liang" in Mandarin Chinese or "leung" in Cantonese language.

[Ref: Stapel, W.F., (1931), Pieter van Dam’s Beschrijvinge van de Oostindische Compagnie, ‘s Gravenhage Martinuss Nijhoff, page 834-835.]
People of Pegu are known under the name Talaing, which is obviously connected with the word Telingana (a region of the Andhra Pradesh
state in India). The name by which they call themselves is Mun or Mwun. The word Talaing was no doubt originally applied only to the
colonists from India.

[Ref: History of Burma - Arthur P. Phayre (1883) - page 28]
Talapoin also Talpojer, talpooy, tolipi etc, brought into circulation by the Portuguese to denote saffron-robed Buddhist monks. No satisfactory
explanation of this term exists, but it may perhaps be related to the Pali word talapata (talipot), a type of palm tree which provides large
fan-shaped leaves to be used as a sunshade (1), one of the few possessions allowed to a monk.

[Ref: In the King's Trail - Remco Raben and Dhiravat Na Pombejra (1997) - page 37]

A word used by the Portuguese, and after them by French and other Continental writers, as well as by some English travellers of the 17th
century, to designate the Buddhist monks of Ceylon and the Indo-Chinese countries. The origin of the expression is obscure. Monseigneur.

[Ref: Yule, Henry, Sir. Hobson-Jobson: A glossary of colloquial Anglo-Indian words and phrases, and of kindred terms, etymological,
historical, geographical and discursive. New ed. edited by William Crooke, B.A. London: J. Murray, 1903.]

Talapoins again is the common term used by Europeans (in the first instance by the Portuguese, as de Bourges himself says a little further on)
to designate Siamese monks in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; its etymology is disputed, but may derive from Mon; tala, meaning
"lord" and poe, meaning "we".

[Ref: Jacques de Bourges (c.1630-1714) and Siam - Michael Smithies - The Journal of the Siam Society Vol. 81, Pt. 2 (1993).]
Traditional Thai unit of weight equal to 60 gram or 4 Ticals.
Tamnan means story, legend, or myth. Tamnan is a term frequently used for documents dealing with the history of Buddhism or of particular
Buddhist monuments. It includes documents concerned with the history of Buddhism and came into existence well before the fifteenth century
and, though it began to decline in the seventeenth century, its influence lasted until the end of the eighteenth century. Tamnan histories begin at
the point when the Gautama Buddha made a vow to reach enlightenment.

[Ref: The Rise of Ayudhya - Charnvit Kasetsiri (1976) - page 1,2]
Tarang wa
Tarangwa or square waa is a unit of area used in Thailand for measuring land or property. It is defined as the area of a square whose sides
measure exactly one waa (two metres), equivalent to four square metres. Although its current size is precisely derived from the metre, it is
neither part of nor recognized by the modern metric system.
Than khiang
A plain or simple base, the lowest base supporting other kinds of base or moulding of different levels. For example, the than khiang bases
supporting the lower and upper Cyma Recta mouldings (Thai : than bua) and the lion-throne moulding (simhasana), the moulding which has the
"S" shaped lion-shank feet as its lowest part (Thai : than sing).

[Ref: An outline of the History of Religious Architecture in Thailand - Sonthiwan Intralib (1991).]
Traditional Thai unit of volume equal to 1 liter (coconut shell).
Traditional Thai unit of volume equal to 20 liter (bucket) or 10 Kg used for measuring rice.
Thao Lokaban
The four guardians of the world - In Siamese, called Chatu Maharachik Thewada, or Thao Lokaban. These are four angels named Thotsarot,
Wirunhok, Wirunpak, and Wessuwan, whose palaces are in the Yukunthon mountains (the circular range next to Mount Meru), and who,
respectively, rule over the east, south, west, and north divisions of the system, and have under their jurisdiction the Khonthan angels
(Gandharvas), the Kumphan angels or Yaks, the Nagas or serpents of supernatural power, and the local angels, &c.

[Ref: The Weel of The Law - Henry Alabaster  (1871) - Trubner & Co, London - page 178.]
Lintel, a horizontal decorative element placed on the door head of an entrance to the Khmer sanctuary tower. Its importance lies in the fact that
it is used to bear the weight of the pediment whereas the two colonnettes designed to decorate the door frames also support the lintel.

[Ref: An outline of the History of Religious Architecture in Thailand - Sonthiwan Intralib (1991).]
Thep Nakhon
(Translated City of angels) - According to the phongsawadan tradition as written in the reign of Rama I, at the beginning of the 14th century,
when a daughter of the King of Traitrung married a commoner, both she and her husband were driven out of the city because of the disgrace
they had created for the king. They went south and in 1319, founded a new city called Thepnakhon. In 1344, their son Uthong became king
and in 1351 he moved the capital to Ayudhya.

[Ref: The Rise of Ayudhya - Charnvit Kasetsiri - page 56)]
One of the  four guardians of the world, in Thai called Chatu Maharachik Thewada, or Thao Lokaban, ruler over the east.

[Ref: The Weel of The Law - Henry Alabaster  (1871) - Trubner & Co, London - page 178.]
Duhkha; One of the three characteristics of existence known as Phra Trai Laksana. This triple formula is of very frequent occurrence in
Siamese religious writings ; indeed, is so well known, that instead of being written at length, it  is often written Anichang, &c. The words,
which are Siamese-Pali, are Anichang, Thukkhang, Anatta (unstable, painful, and illusive). They correspond to the Sanscrit Anitya, Duhkha,
and Anatma. Anitya is "inconstant, or perishable, Duhkha is "pain":, Anatma is "that which has no self."  

[Ref: The Wheel of The Law - Alabaster Henry (1871) - Trubner & Co, London - page 227.]
Traditional Thai unit of weight equal to 15 gram. The name tical has been replaced by Baht.
The Traiphum, literally meaning "Three Worlds", was an important doctrinal tradition within Theravada Buddhism. It is believed that King Lu
Thai, who came to the throne of Sukhothai in 1347, composed the Traibhumikatha (The Three Worlds of Phra Ruang), the first systematic
construction of Buddhist cosmology and a major treatise of the Sukhothai Kingdom. Beings are classified by their merit and designated to live in
particular places according to their store of merit in the Traiphum cosmography. One's deeds can accumulated or diminished the store of merit
and account for one's next birth. The most evil beings live in the lowest section of hell. The more merit one makes, the higher the level where
one resides. Our present life is the outcome of the previous one. The Traiphum consists of 31 levels; (15 in the lower world, men’s world and
15 in the higher world.) We can simply say that the Traiphum is a Buddhist sermon which exhorts its listeners to lead a moral life and by so
doing reap the appropriate heavenly rewards.

[Ref: Siam mapped by Thongchai Winichakul - page 20 / Buddhism and politics in twentieth-century Asia by Ian Harris - page 196.]

Traiphum or the "Three Worlds" consists of the Immaterial World, the Fine Material World and the Sensuous World. The latter consists
of eleven realms, dominated by the five senses. Four realms are states of deprivation (which include the animal and hell realms - the
underworld), one is the world we presently live in (human beings) and six are happy destinations - the dewa heavens. Dawadungsa is the
second tier of the dewa heavens, reckoned from the earth. Dawadungsa was located above the peak of Mount Meru (Phra Sumeru) the centre
of the universe. In the Dawadungsa Heaven is the palace of Indra (Wechaiyanta) where Indra resides and where the Kalpa trees flourish (Th:
Kamaphruk), whose branches furnish everything that the angels can desire. [1]

[Ref: The Wheel of The Law - Henry Alabaster (1871) - page 82, 171.]
According to the phongsawadan tradition as written in the reign of Rama I, in the latter part of the twelfth century a military force from Lower
Burma expelled a group of Thai from the area of Chieng Saen north of present-day Chiengmai. These Thai migrated south and formed a new
settlement in the area of Kamphaeng Phet on the Ping River, one of the major tributaries of the Maenam. They founded the city of
which in all likelihood became a vassal to Sukhothai once that kingdom had become an independent Thai state in the middle of the thirteenth

[Ref: The Rise of Ayudhya - Charnvit Kasetsiri - page 56)]

Traitrung is a town located 18 Km from Kamphaeng Phet. The excavation in Traitrung, on the west bank of the Ping River, revealed Dvaravati
artifacts, including glass beads, fragments of clay lamps and unglazed ceramics. The clay lamps are similar to those found in Central Thailand.
These cultural materials imply the presence of prehistoric and early historic communities along the route between the central plains and the
upper north in Lamphun or Hariphunchai. There are traces of moats and earthen ramparts at Traitrung supposedly belonging to the Early
Sukhothai period, on both sides of the River Ping.

[Ref: Guide to Sukhothai, Si Satchanalai and Kamphaeng Phet Historical Parks at
http://www.archae.go.th/Website/HTM/pdf/G3-kampang_E.pdf - retrieved 08 March 2011.]
Three-gabled roof
See Dusit